Saturday, February 27, 2010

Kean University Students

Hello Fellow Historians,

Thank you for visiting my blog. All of the lecture notes (which includes material for potential exam questions) are found in blogs posted in February 2010. You do not have to go anywhere else in the blog to find History 1000 material.

This is my personal blog, and includes a variety a material, some of which is not representative of a state university curriculum. I will not use class time to talk about anything found in this blog other than the lecture material.

In my journey, I am fascinated by both history and faith. And I also strongly affirm the seperation of Church and state. This blog helps me explore and communicate the things that interest me to a diversity of people that my path intersects with.

Thank you for taking my class at Kean. I love teaching at Kean and I hope your time at Kean is one of growth and much learning.

Tuesday, February 23, 2010

Survey of the American Economy

bold font denotes information you should know for the final exam.

700 BC, Native American cultivation of squash and corn. Crops move throughout geographic regions based upon tribal relocation, expansion and trading networks.
1492 CE With the arrival of Columbus , European diet and lifestyle is expanded in Europe .
1608 Glass Factory set up in Jamestown , first manufacturing. Tobacco cultivated in Jamestown by 1612.
1643 Ironworks begins in Massachussetts, by 1750 Parliament passes Iron Act, where raw iron must be shipped back to Great Britain .
1693 Rice cultivation begins in South Carolina
1712 The first sperm whale captured by Nantucket fishermen. Whale Oil causes radical increase in hunting.
1750 Wheat replaces tobacco as ultimate cash crop in Virginia . One third of Great Britain ’s fleet is built by colonies.
1765 Fishing Industry in New England is over 10,000 men and 665 ships.

1781 Robert Morris first superintendent of Finance, develops charter for National Bank, The charter obtains loans from Holland and France to create new currency and meet war debt repayments.

1785 Continental Congress makes dollar the official currency.
1790 Slater’s Mill, RI, spins cotton based on textile design that Slater memorized in England—who had wanted it kept secret.
1791 Alexander Hamilton charters first national bank. National Debt is 75,463,000.
1792 US Mint begins making coins out of silver and gold.
1793 Eli Whitney invents cotton gin.
1811 Charter for National Bank not renewed.
1816 Charter for 2nd National Bank with support of anti-federalists. The Tariff of 1816, the first protective tariff passed (25%).

Tariffs will protect manufacturing jobs in US, encourage industry and provide profit.

1817 NY Stock Exchange established.
1819 Bank panic #1, six year depression following inflation, western land expansion and contraction of credit.
1825 Erie Canal changes the agricultural center from the Mississippi Valley to the midwest.
1828 South protests increased tariffs, which ultimately help New England more than southern states.
1832 South Carolina refuses to collect federal tariffs. President Jackson refuses to renew charter of the 2nd national bank and transfers funds to state banks, causing banking crisis., panic, and loan calls by banks. Recession results.
1836 British call for American loans, 6 year depression results. President Jackson: Hard currency, rather than paper, will be required for purchase of western lands.
1857 Depression occurs because of panic selling..
1859 Atlantic & Pacific Tea Company founded, eventually becomes first great chain store.
1862 Legal Tender Act empowers federal government to print paper money.
1863 National bank Act prohibits state banks from printing paper money.
1864 2 cent coins are minted with phrase In God we Trust. 1955, this phrase is mandatory on all coins. 1866 first 5 cent piece made of nickel.
1868 Federal employees in labor and mechanics are provided 8 hour day by congressional act.
1869 First Black Friday. Knights of Labor formed in Philadelphia , first influential labor union (eventually advocate child labor laws). John Rockefeller creates Standard Oil Company out of several smaller oil companies.
1870 National Debt is 2,436,453,000.
1873 failure of Jay Cooke and CO. bank leads to 5 year depression. Andrew Carnegie becomes steel giant, gives away $350 million in profits.
1890 Sherman Anti-Trust Act attempts to break up monopolies. 1900 US manufactures 1/3 of the world’s goods.
1901 Carnegie Steel Company first billion dollar company. Discovery of oil in Texas replaces ranching and farming as leading state economy.
1913 Ford Motor Company uses mass production technique and assembly line. Federal Reserve System becomes (3rd) National Bank.
1914 Henry Ford pays $4 a day to workers, other auto workers receive $2.15 per day.
1928 Clarence Birdseye uses quick freeze process for common foods, takes lead in frozen food industry.
1929 Stock Market crash causes Great Depression.
1933 FDR’s election starts with the New Deal, including legislation for Federal Deposit Insurance Corporations, Civilian Conservation Coprs, Emergency Farm Mortgage Act, Home Owners’ Loan Corporation, separates commercial and investment banking, took nation off gold standard.
1938 Fair labor Standards Act creates minimum wage and 40 hour work week.
1953 General Motors first company to report billion dollar annual profits.
1956 Soil bank established to pay farmers to not grow crops.
1965 LBJ war on poverty increases social programs (most since new deal), uses budget surplus to initiate programs.
1968 Car manufacturing must comply with government safety standards.
1973 Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries prices soar with Arab oil embargo. Americans wait in long lines for gasoline.
1977 Trade deficit exceeds $29 billion.
During 80-90’s, annual deficits of $100 billion per year.
1980 US produces 20% of automobiles in world. In 1960, it was half.

1981 Reagan revises tax codes, cutting corporate and personal taxes. Reagan advocates Supply-Side economics (smaller government spending during ailing economy) first time since New Deal Keynesian economics not predominant (government spending fuels economy).

1985 US is a debtor nation, with $220 billion trade deficit.. National Debt is 1,945,900,000,000.
1987 Stock Market crashes, infusion from Federal Reserve lessen impact.
1998 First national government budget surplus since 1960.
2000 Microsoft found to have violated anti-trust laws.
2001 10 year, 1.35 trillion in tax break passed by congress.
2002 Enron, energy company largest bankruptcy case in history.
2002 National Debt is 6,228,200,000,000

Survey of America and Religion

Bold and 20 point font bullet points signifies potential test-questions.

1620 Pilgrims arrive in North America
1634 Lord Baltimore settles Maryland as a haven for R. Catholics

1647 Rhode Island drafts civil code including a separation of church and state.

1654 First Jewish immigrants arrive in New Amsterdam
1660 Celebrating Christmas in Massachusetts is illegal, and people were fined 5 schillings.
1683 Mennonites from Germany arrive, strong separation of church and state, simple lifestyle and pacificism.
1692 Salem Witch Trials
1707 Baptists organize first inter-colony organization 1730 First synagogue built
1730’s the Great Awakening-first wave of religious revival (Jonathan Edwards)
1757 Philadelphia Quakers ban slaveholding among its members
1771 Francis Asbury introduces circuit riding as a preaching method, serving 30-40 communities.
1776 9 of 13 original colonies have established religions.
1780 Philadelphia Quakers admit African Americans as members.

1786 Thomas Jefferson-Bill for Establishing Religious Freedom, defeats idea of states established religion, includes the phrase, “wall of separation around church and state”. Example: Patrick Henry wanted taxes to sponsor a state religion.

1790’s 2nd Great Awakening (movement from Calvinist theology to free will)—second wave of revivalism

1791, Bill of Rights ratified, first amendment includes the freedom of religion.

1808 Elizabeth Bayley Seton finds Sisters of Carity of St. Joseph in Baltimore (1975 first US saint)
1824 Reformed Society of Israelites, forerunner of Reformed Judaism, founded in South Carolina . Advocates, shorter sermons (in English), and mixed seating of men and women.
1830 Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints founded in Fayette , NY by Joseph Smith.
1844 South and Northern Baptists split over issue of slavery. The south forms the Southern Baptist Convention (1990—largest protestant church body)
1847 Large pockets of Morman population move from Missouri to Salt Lake City under the leadership of Brigham Young.
1866 Mary Baker Eddy begins Christian Science church, emphasizing faith healing.
1880 Salvation Army begins
1880’s growth of parochial schools in Maryland , protecting immigrant’s children from secular schools.
1890’s third wave of revivalism (Billy Sunday, opposed Darwinism, embraced prohibition, ends with Scopes Monkey Trial verdict) personal holiness and complete surrender to God is a key theme.
1901 Pentecostal faith is born in Kansas at a gathering at a Bible College , students start speaking in tongues. The Social Gospel movement grows, applying Christ’s teachings to social problems.
1909 Fundamentalism grows in popularity with the Schofield reference Bible, teaching Dispensationalism.
1916 Stephen Wise, Reform rabbi, organized American Jewish Congress, lobbying for more liberal immigration policies in light of the first world war.
1918 Aimee Semple McPherson begins a religious broadcast.
1926 Father Charles Coughlin begins radio show in Detroit . By 1930, has an audience of 40 million people. But is eventually silenced by the Bishop of Detroit for anti-Semitic and anti-government sermons.
1930, The Black Muslims group is formed in Detroit . (eventually becomes Nation of Islam)
1940 Supreme Court rules that Jehovah’s Witnesses right to religion is protected by first amendment like other religions would be.
1950 The National Council of Churches is formed.
1950’s fourth wave of revivalism, Billy Graham, puts evangelicals in political conversation.
1954 Dwight Eisenhower adds “under God” to the pledge of Allegience.

1955 Rev. Martin Luther King Jr. leads Montgomery bus boycott, the first encounter of the modern civil rights movement.

1962 Supreme Court bans mandated prayer in public schools as unconstitutional.
1960’s-70’s, woman become ordained in many mainline denominations and Reformed Judaism.
1974 Jim Baker creates PTL: Praise the Lord ministry, which becomes multi-million dollar organization.
1979 Moral Majority founded by Jerry Falwell, reaching an audience of 20 million listeners.
1980’s More Christians are evangelical than protestant.

Survey of America and Achievement

AMERICA AND ACHIEVEMENT: Education, Literature, Music and Theatre

Bullet points in Bold signifies material that could appear on final exam.

1636 Harvard College founded to train puritan ministers
1693 William & Mary becomes nation’s second college.
1732 Ben Franklin publishes Poor Richard’s Almanack
1744 Moravian community established Collegium Museaum for non-religious chamber music
1776 Phi Beta Kappa founded at W& M as a social club.
1780’s American’s establish their own playing companies
1783 Noah Webster publishes the American Spelling Book
1787 The Young Ladies Academy in Philadelphia opens, seeking to train wives and mothers in the new republic
1789 UNC is chartered at the first state university
1793 GWashington accepts architectural design for Washington DC
1800 Library of Congress established
1814 Star-Spangled Banner written, becoming official national anthem in 1831
1818 Boston establishes public elementary schools
1821 First high school in Boston established
1822 Philadelphia establishes first public school for blacks.
1824 The first public school for girls opens in Massachusetts.
1824 Dartmouth College admits first black students
1826 US Capitol construction complete
1827 Every town with 500 or more families is required to have a high school
1830’s: first wave of American literature: (Poe, Melville, Dickinson, Hawthorne, Thoreau, Whitman, Emerson
1833 Oberlin College first co-educational university.
1842 New York Philharmonic is founded
1845 The Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass
1852 Uncle Tom’s Cabin sells 300,000 thousand copies within first six months.
1861 The first PhD is awarded at Yale.
1862 Morrill Land Grant Acts set aside public lands for state colleges.
1867 Howard University founded to educate newly emancipated slaves.
1870 563 Colleges and women make up 21% of student population
1873 Chautauqua Movement seeks to provide adult education
1880’s golden age of theatre, growth of broadway.
1881 Boston Symphony founded
1883 Home Insurance Building first skyscraper with metal skeleton.
1884 Mark Twain writes Adventures of Huckleberry Finn
1890 4% of 14-17 year olds are enrolled in high school, 40% of colleges are co-educational
1897 Mississippi Rag first ragtime music
1900 6,000 high schools in US, up from 160 in 1870
1903 Babes in Toyland, first American operetta. Silent film Great Train Robbery is 12 minutes long
1910 1000 colleges, women are 40% of student population
1916, Bureau of Education reports southern states spend $10.32 for white students and $2.89 for black students.
1916 Norman Rockwell paints first of 300 covers for Sat. Evening Post.
1917 Livery stable Blues first Dixieland jazz band recording
1920 Harrison Frazee sells Babe Ruth to Yankees to finance No, No Nanette production.
1920’s 2nd wave of American Lit: Fitzgerald, Hemingway, William Faulkner, T.S. eliot), height of the silent movie popularity.
1924 Lincoln Memorial statue is installed.

1925 Scopes Monkey Trial. Scopes arrested for teaching evolution (after answering ad from ACLU)

1926 Louis Armstrong brings national face to jazz scene.
1928 Walt Disney’s Mickey Mouse makes debut in Steamboat Willie.
1930 Ansel Adams publishes Tao Pueblo
1930’s Jazz moves north to cities.
1932 Men at Work, photography series shows construction of Empire State building.
1934 Benny Goodman popularizes swing music
1934 School of American ballat is founded
1935 10 southern states spend $49 on white students and $17 on each black student.
1937 Count Basie Orchestra organizes popular swing bands. Walt Disney’s first full feature film, Snow White.
1940 Woody Guthrie and Pete Seeger give folk voice
1942 Bing Crosby sings “White Christmas”
1944 GI Bill provides money for war veterans to go to school, within 10 years, 10 million veterans go back to school.
1946 NYC Ballet, second major classical dance company founded

1947 “Zeal for Democracy” campaign implemented nationwide (yet does not last, US is only industrial nation not to have a national curriculum)

1947 Movie popularity reaches height, before intro of television.
1950’s Off-Broadway movement grows.
1950 Jackson Pollock shocks the world with Abstract expressionism.

1954 Brown V. Board of Education has public schools desegregated.

1954 Alan Freed coins term Rock and roll
1956 Elvis Presley becomes famous
1957 Troops sent by Eisenhower to Arkansas to make sure schools desegregated.
1960 To Kill a Mockingbird written by Harper Lee.
1960’s folk music grows with Joan Baez, Boby Dylan, Peter Paul and Mary
1962 Andy Warhol paints pop art Campbell’s Soup Can
1965 Lyndon Johnson starts Job Corps and Head Start
1965 National Endowment for the Arts established by congress
1967 Monterey Pop Festival first major rock festival, followed by 1969 Woodstock
1968 Sesame Street starts
1969 Vassar College admits males.
1971 Supreme Court rules that busing is appropriate means to achieve racial balance. One year later, Nixon orders moratorium.
1974 Mikhail Baryshnikov defects to the US from Russia.
1977, Star Wars released, revolutionizes movies with idea of prequel and sequels.
1981 “Video Killed the radio Star by the Buggles is the first music video played on MTV
1990, 80 years later, National Cathedral completed.
1994 Independent films grow in popularity
1997 Concert Halls open in Newark, Seattle, Houston and Forth Worth
1997 Paul Getty Center, costliest art center built (1 billion dollars)

Survey of International Relationships

Bullet points in Bold are eligible for exam questions.

foreign affairs the responsibility of congress and the president. President is responsible as commander in chief, negotiating treaties which are confirmed by senate, to appoint ambassadors and receive emissaries. Congress approves defense funding, support army and navy, regulate foreign trade and to declare war.
1781 By Treaty of Paris , ending revolutionary war, US establishes relationships with France , Great Britain , Spain , the Netherlands and Russia
1789 Thomas Jefferson is appointed first secretary of state.
1793 first Foreign affairs challenge. Great Britain and France are at war and Washington declares neutrality and seeks trade with both nations. (1st wave of neutrality) ?What were the benefits of the first president declaring neutrality?
1807 Trading becomes increasingly difficult, Jefferson signs Embargo At, which makes all importing/exporting with Europe forbidden. A year later this is overturned after it hurts US more than Great Britain .
1817 JQ Adams, secretary of state signs Rush-Bagot Treaty, which takes military presence out of Great Lakes region, and ultimately Canadian border.

1823 Monroe Doctrine created, affirming US will defend against colonization attempts in America , and will refrain from European affairs. Dominates thinking until WW I.

1824 Monrovia made capital of Liberia , where American Colonization society brought freed slaves starting in 1822
1853 Matthew Perry opens Japan and US Trade
1855 William Walker leads group to Nicaragua and declares himself dictator. President Pierce recognizes government. Loses attempts by 1857
Post Civil war: 2nd wave of Foreign Affair neutrality
1889 James Blaine calls for first hemisphere wide conference, the Pan-American conference.
1899 Open Door Policy proposed in Asia, which suggests all nations have equal trading rights in China , American attempt at non-colony presence in Asia .

1904 Roosevelt Corollary, which declares US right to intervene in Latin American internal affairs when those nations are experiencing political or fiscal instability “however relunctantly”

1905 Taft breaks Open Door Policy by building railroads in China , which begins tension with Japan (reaching climax in WW2)
1917 Jones Act grants political autonomy to Puerto Rico and grants US citizenship to residents
1919 Treaty of Versailles ends WWI. President Wilson presents 14 Points for post-war world. “The principle of justice to all peoples and nationalities, and their right to live on equal terms of liberty and safety with one another whether they be weak or strong.” The Points identify common historical problems that result from war:
annexing disputed lands
secret covenants
use of the high sea
colonial claims.
asks for
open treaties among nations of world
the right of neutrality
freedom of high seas
free trade among nations
reduced arms and armies
self-determination for all nations
mediation of colony claims.
The 14th point is the League of Nations . The League is established by 1920 in Europe, but the senate opposes US membership.
1920 third wave of foreign affair neutrality
1941 Atlantic Charter negotiated by Roosevelt, Churchill and Stalin.
Renounces territorial aggrandizement
affirms the rights of people to choose their own form of government
equal access to trade for all nations
collaborative efforts in economic advancement
to live in freedom
1944 International Monetary Fund and International bank for Reconstruction and Development are created as plans for post-2nd world war are created.
1945 Germany is divided into 4 quadrants following war. Each zone led by France, US, Great Britain and Russia .
1945 formations of United Nations. 5 member security council: France , China , G. Britain, USSR , US. General Assembly. Today, US funds over 25% of budget and supplies, as well as troops. 189 Nations are currently members.
1946 Bipartisan support against communism, and development of Iron Curtain in western Europe. Birth of Cold War: ideological, economic differences and arms race

1947 Truman Doctrine offers military and economic aid to nations that resist communist aggression. This resistance to aggression is called “containment”
and 12.5 billion dollars given by 1950. First significant foreign aid by US. Truman also creates Central Intelligence Agency.

1948 Unification of Germany opposed by USSR . US and Britain send in air supply of food and fuel until blockade by USSR around Berlin abandoned.
1949 NATO formed, North Atlantic Treaty Organization. China/US relations cool with Communist form of government installed.
1954 SEATO formed, Southeast Asian Treaty Organization, but does not include India and Indonesia , thus not as influential as NATO.
1961 USSR builds Berlin Wall because of large exodus from East German zone.
1968 115 nations sign Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty
1969 Nixon Doctrine attempting to reduce role as world’s policemen “We will help where it makes a difference in our national interest. America cannot and will not conceive all the plans, design all the programs execute all the decisions and undertake all the defenses of the nations of the world”. Support includes anti-democratic Shah of Iran, Marcos in Philippines and white government of South Africa .
1972 Nixon travels to China creating breakthrough in US/China relations. Sells $1 billion in wheat to USSR .
1979 Carter Doctrine. United States interested and will protect interests in the Middle East
1979 Shah is ousted in Iran . Result of revolution, 53 Americans are taken hostage for 444 days in Iran .
1985 Mikhail Gorbachev comes to power in USSR , tensions relax over time with US.
1989 Communist Block in eastern Europe breaks down. Elections in Poland , Hungary , Bulgaria and Czechoslovakia . Berlin Wall comes down.
1990’s: Post Cold War intervention by Bush and Clinton includes Nicaragua , Kuwait , Bosnia , Haiti , Somalia and Kosovo.
1993 North Atlantic Free Trade Agreement with Canada and Mexico .
2000 Full Trading partner status with China .

2001: Bush Doctrine: nations of world are divided into those who support US anti-terrorist efforts and those who do not.

Less than 1% of federal budget goes to foreign aid. (not including war costs)

Survey of Community

Community: Looking at Transportation and Communication

Bullet points in Bold are potential questions for final exam.

1639 First Colonial Printing Press used at Harvard
1685 Maps of colonies printed
1734 John Peter Zenger arrested for libel, because of New York Weekly articles, acquitted, leads to idea of freedom of the press
1756 Philadelphia and NYC develop stagecoach line
1787 John Fitch launches first steamboat on Delaware river after buying exclusive rights to build and operate steamboats on the waterways of NJ, PA, NY, Delaware and VA
1795 Robert Fulton patents first power shovel for digging canals. First toll road opens between Philly and Lancaster
1800 Robert Fulton creates first economically viable steamboat, traveling the Hudson river .
1817 construction of Erie Canal begins.
1821 Saturday Evening Post is first published (by 1855, 90,000 circulation, by 1908, 2 million)
1823 The first macadam (paved road) in Maryland
1825 the first steam locomotive
1826 the first railroads, originally powered by horses, sails or cables
1829 the Encyclopedia Americana first published in Philly. William Burt invents prototype of typewriter.
1830 the first viable steam locomotive tested against horse, loses.
1832 NYC, the first streetcar operated, the first penny daily newspaper
1837 Samuel Morse patents Morse Code.
1839 Charles Goodyear makes rubber resistant to heat and cold
1843 Morse receives federal funds to build telegraph line from Baltimore and DC
NY News Agency founded (becomes Associated Press)
1852 Baltimore and Ohio begins operating (connects Chicago )
1858 Cyrus Fields builds first undersea telegraph cable between US and Europe
1860 Pony Express begins from Missouri to California
1862 Congress grants 100 million acres of public lands to railroad companies
1864 George Pullman builds first sleeping rail car, 1866 first refrigerated railroad car
1867 first subway system in NY, hidden from politicians until 1912, forgotten tunnel was then used in current system
1868 typewriter invented
1869 first successful telegraph cable from US to Europe
1870 first asphalt paved road in US is created in Newark
1872 first mail-order house: Montgomery Ward & Co
1873 free mail delivery in cities established
1874 T. Edison develops telegraph system with four simultaneous messages
1876 Alexander Graham Bell patents the telephone.
1877 first phone purchased
1877 In Newark , first electric streetlight
1878 T.E. shows phonograph (Mary had a little lamb)
1879 George Selden patents gasoline motor driven vehicle
1880 George Eastman process photographic dry plates (do not require immediate development) 1883 T. Edison devises trolley that runs off electric third rail (still used by NYC subways)
1885 American Telephone and Telegraph formed for long distance phone network
1888 Herman Hollerith devises first successful computer, (tabulating 1890 census). Eastman invents box camera (roll film)
1893 Edison patents kinetoscopic camera, taking moving pictures
1894 edison Labortatories builds film studio in West Orange .
1896 Henry Ford constructs his first gasoline powered car.
1897 Boston has first subway
1897 More than 300 Norman Rockwell paintings on covers of Sat. Evening Post
1900 1 million miles of telephone line in US
1902 AAA founded
1903 Kitty Hawk NC, Orville and Wilbur Wright make first sustained manned flight in gas-powered aircraft, 852 feet

1903 US/Panama Treaty, purchase land for Panama Canal , $10 million, plus $230,000 per year for 99 years.

1903 Harley Davidson motorcycle, first license plates in MA, Ford founds Ford Motor Company
1905 first movie theater in Pittsburgh , charging 5 cents, called Nickelodeon. AT&T introduces rotary dial
1906 construction of Panama canal costs $300 million
1907 first taxis imported from Paris
1908 Model T Ford introduces. Cadilla Auto Company introduces interchangeable parts for cars.
1908 Glenn Curtis first American flight over 1 mile. Mutt and Jeff first daily comic strip with same characters
1911 cell system created for animation. C. Kettering electric self-starter for cars so they don’t have to be cranked.
1912 Howell invents continuous printer for copying motion pictures
1913 Ford Co builds 9 thousand cars a day.
1914 first red/green/yellow traffic lights in Cleveland .
1915 1 millionth car made by Ford
1917 invention of design for AM radios.
1923 Hertz Drive Ur self system created. Pan American Airways purchases seven float planes from navy. Iconoscope patented (early prototype of TV)
1924 Computing-Tabulating-Recording CO renamed International Business Machines. Metro-Goldwyn Mayer formed.
1926 Byrd and Bennett make first flight over North Pole. National Enquirer begins publishing (400 million weekly circulation by 1975)

1927 Lindbergh completes first non-stop solo transatlantic flight.

1927 Jazz Singer, first motion picture with sound is released.
1928 Schenectady , General Electric broadcasts first regularly scheduled television program
1932 first walk-talkie made by US Army Corps and Motorola. Amelia Earhart, first woman to make solo flight across Atlantic .
1933 Edwin Armstrong refines Frequency modulation radio (FM). First World’s Fair in Chicago
1935 George Gallup finds American Institute of Public Opinion
1938 Chester Carlson invents xerography. Haloid Company purchases rights to invention in 1947 and named….?
1947 Television overtakes movie theaters in popularity. (movie theaters were mostly in cities)
1948 MIT builds first chess playing computer

1949 Department of Justice breaks up AT&T charging monopoly

1950 NYC Port Authority opens, as world’s largest bus terminal first transcontinental tv broadcast
1952 the first videotape invented. CBS uses UNIVAC computer to predict results of the presidential election
1954 RCA produces first color television set and first video recorder.
1958 National Aeronautics and Space Administration is formed, and first satellite launched.
1961 Alan Shepard Jr. makes first American manned space voyage.
1962 Congress forms private company Communications Satellite Corporation (COMSAT), to formulate role of US in worldwide satellite communication.
1963 Touch-tone service begins
1964 BASIC invented, becoming the main programming language for personal computers.
1965 Ralph Nader writes Unsafe at Any Speed, the result is new congressional safety regulations for automobiles.
1966 Freedom of Information Act is passed.

1969 Neil Armstrong becomes first human to walk on the moon.

1969 Cigarette advertising eliminated from TV and radio over 3 years.
1970 Floppy disk invented.
1971 the Picture Phone invented by Bell Telephone.
1974 Nationwide speed limit of 55 established.
1975 Sony markets the Betamax Video Cassette Recorder (VCR).
1977 RCA introduces Video Home System (VHS).
1981 AT&T develops cellular phones (by 1981 national use)
1982 Compact Discs introduced
1985 Bell laboratories transmits 300,000 simultaneous phone calls over single fiber optic .
1997 IBM supercomputer Deep Blue defeats Garry Kasparov in chess.
2000 Y2K bug does not live up to expectations
2001 wireless telephones reach 100 million in US

Survey of Rural & Urban U.S. Demographics

Bullet Points in BOLD are eligible for final exam.

1524 Verrazzano sails into rugged forest on island, which becomes Manhattan
1630 Massachusetts Bay Co. establishes Boston , “a city on a hill”, within first year, wooden chimney burns down city, which leads to the first building code.
1653 New Amsterdam colonists fear native American attacks and construct defensive wall in Manhattan (what is now known as wall street)
Early look of new communities: Spanish built missions surrounded by vineyards and orchards. French built Trading Posts with church and government in center. Dutch built farming villages and towns with narrow windy streets, English built forts. New England had urban planning, individual lots connected to a common (publicly owned land), each family had share of corporation. Washington DC is designed using grids with intersections, diagonal avenues, town squares.
1682 First attempt at grid planning found in Philadelphia.
1713 Boston begins grading streets for water drainage.
1751 First police force, Philadelphia
1754 Tallest building in North America: Christ Church, Philadelphia , 200 ft.
1790 in first census, there are 24 cities (2500 people or more).
1793 Yellow fever epidemic in Philadelphia causes 4000 deaths. Lack of Sanitary conditions a major concern, leads to first public water supply system.
1818 Public Elementary schools established in Boston.
1820’s ½ of urban population lives in either NY, Baltimore , Philadelphia and Boston , yet only 6% of populations lives in cities.
1822 Lowell MA becomes first designed manufacturing city, including dormitories at factories for young girls.
1825 Erie Canal opens
1827 Baltimore & Ohio railroad opens
1831 NYC, Gramercy Park , first planned neighborhood, where residents have keys to gated community.
1837 Buildings and paved streets make up 16% of Manhattan . Atlanta (first called Terminus) established at end of rail line.
1860 20% of US population lives in cities
1870 first elevated US railroad opens in NYC
1873 Cable cars begin in San Francisco
1877 Museum of Natural History opens in NYC
1882 NYC lit by electricity, 2 years later a law requires that wire be placed underground
1883 Brooklyn Bridge opens, Homes Insurance Building in Chicago is first skyscraper

1889 First electric elevators, Jane Addams opens Hull-House, first settlement house.

1890 NYC population is 2.5 million, 700 people per acre.
1893 Louisville creates field houses for kids to play in bad weather
1900 40% of citizens live in urban areas. 20 Thousand miles of street railroads.
1901 Andrew Carnegie donates 5.2 million dollars for NYC to build 65 public libraries. Today, there are more than 10,000 public libraries in the US
1905 one of the first suburbs, Shaker Heights , outside of Cleveland . Connected by rail line.
1909 Dan Burnham, architect, calls for city master plans. “Make no little plans. They have no magic to stir men’s blood”
1913 Pipeline carries 26 million gallons of water a day to LA from Sierra Nevada
1916 NYC passes first Urban zoning plan, requiring separation between houses and factories. Aqueduct provides NYC with 260 million gallons from Catskills.
1921 Federal Highway Act proposes all US cities be connected by highway.
1927 Holland Tunnel opens
1929 Stock Market Crash 1930 23 million cars are registered by US Population (123 million)
1931 GW Bridge and Empire State Building open (longest suspension bridge, tallest building at time)
1933 Federal Home Owners Loan Corporation, covers 1 million mortgages, lowers down payment from 50% to 10%.
1942 Emergency Price Control Act provides rent control

1947 William Levitt, completes first Levittown (Hempstead, Long Island), 17000 homes

1950’s suburban land value increases, white flight starts.
1959 Congress passes $650 million for slum clearance and rehab.
1975 NYC receives federal loan to avoid bankruptcy.
70-80’s height of homelessness in US
From WW2 to 1980, 75% of gov’t spending on transportation goes to building highways, 1% to public transportation.
2000 80% of population lives in urban areas.

Survey of American Politics

Bullet points in bold are eligible for final exam.

1619 Jamestown , VA , first western representative government, House of Burgesses (which leads to VA General Assembly)
1647 Rhode Island, Code of Laws mentions Freedom of Conscience, “otherwise what is herein forbidden, all men may walk as their conscience persuade them, everyone in the name of his god”

1776 Continental Congress adopts the Declaration of Independence, defining natural rights.

1776 Virginia adopts Declaration of Rights, which includes freedom of religion. This declaration becomes foundation for the Bill of Rights.

1777 Continental Congress adopts Articles of Confederation: loose union of states and weak central government

1787 Congress seeks to revise Articles, new Constitution is written, strengthens role of central government. Federalists (Alexander Hamilton) support constitution.

1788 Constitution ratified by 9 states.

1789 George Washington becomes first president. Congress adopts the Bill of Rights (1st 10 amendments to Constitution). Madison authors the Bill of Rights. Three Federal Departments are the State, War and Treasury. Washington meets with these three heads, and it is the first cabinet. Congress takes on responsibility for creation of new departments.

1790 Congress meets in Philadelphia and votes for a new capital along the Potomac.
1791 First national bank, responsible for regulating state banks.
1792 The Democratic-Republican party, led by Jefferson , opposes the federalists. D-R has strong belief in state rights.
1794 Federal Gov’t uses force during Whiskey Rebellion (farmers not wanting to pay tax on whiskey)
1798 Kentucky and VA Resolutions argue that Alien and Sedition Acts are unconstitutional, present Doctrine of Nullification---where states can nullify actions of US congress.
1800 first election with two parties. Jefferson (D-R) defeats John Adams, Federalist.
1804 12th Amendment requires separate election of president and vice president.
1818 Connecticut abolishes property ownership as requirement to vote.
1824 5 different factions of Democratic-Republican party run for President. Jackson wins popular vote, but not electoral vote. J. Quincy Adams elected by House of Representatives.
1828 Andrew Jackson elected as Democrat, after disillusionment with D-R party.
1840 William Henry Harrison, a Whig, is elected.
1865 13th Amendment ratified, prohibiting slavery
1866 1st Civil Rights Act: all persons born in the US are citizens (except Native Americans)

1868 Andrew Johnson impeached by Senate for violation of the Tenure in Office Act. Wins acquittal by one vote.

1872 People’s Party Ticket: Victoria Woodhull is first woman presidential candidate. Frederick Douglass the VP candidate.
1876 Samuel Tilden wins the popular vote, but not electoral vote.
1886 Presidential Succession Act approved, (revised in 1947)
1894 congress passes the first federal income tax.
1895 Supreme Court declares unconstitutional 1908 Bureau of Investigation established.
1913 16th Amendment, Federal Income Tax
1918 Eugene Debs, Socialist Party leader, jailed for espionage, receives one million votes while in jail.
1920 19th Amendment, Women receive right to vote.
1932 Hyatt Caraway elected first woman to senate.
1933 Franklin Delano Roosevelt’s New Deal, legislation designed to overcome great depression.
1937 “FDR’s Court Packing Scheme”
1951 22nd Amendment, limiting presidents to 2 terms.
1965 Voting Rights Act
1967 Thurgood Marshall becomes first black supreme court justice.
1971 26th Amendment lowers voting age to 18
1973 VP Spiro Agnew resigns, Gerald Ford becomes first VP to not be elected.
1974 President Nixon becomes first to resign the office of presidency
1981 Sandra Day O’Conner becomes first woman Supreme Court justice

Survey of U.S. Military History

Bullet Points in BOLD are possible exam questions.

“No aspect of American History better reflects the interests and values of the nation, for better or for worse, than the wars it has fought” (New York Public Library Desk Reference) Over 1 million deaths related to war involvement.

1775 April 19, start of Revolutionary War. In Concord and Lexington, Massachusetts , first shots and casualties. Continental Army organized, George Washington is appointed its head.
1776 Continental Congress signs Declaration of Independence. Washington loses battle of Long, Island, British occupy New York City. Colonial army cross into Pennsylvania. 1st year of fighting ends in draw.
1777 British strategy to divide New England and Hudson Valley . Washington spends winter in Valley Forge
1778 French formally enter war with the colonists. Colonists are winning frontier (famous example is Daniel Boone in Kentucky )
1779 War moves south. Spain declares war on Great Britian.
1781 After Cornwallis’ troops systematically picked off in Carolinas, surrenders at Yorktown , VA.
1783 Treaty of Paris signed on September 3.

1787 Constitution framed so that congress given power to declare war, president is commander in chief.

1791 US army made of volunteers and state militia.
1798 US Marine Corps established
1802 US Military Academy at West Point established
1812 War of 1812: based largely upon border, sea and trade disputes.
1813 US wins campaigns around Great Lakes .. Indians fight alongside British.
1814 US near bankruptcy. British done battles in Europe, devise three fold plan for US war. 1. Secure Chesapeake Bay Region (burn capital). 2. Secure Canada to NYC (lose at Lake Chaplain ). 3. Take New Orleans
1814 Francis Scott Key “The Star Spangled Banner” after battle of Fort McHenry .
1814 Treaty of Ghent . No land changes hands as result of war.
1845 US Naval Academy established.
1846 Mexican War. US annexation of Texas . Mexican Troops attack in Rio Grande region. Polk declares “shed blood upon American soil”.
1848 Grant and Lee fight as colleagues in war.
1860 Lincoln elected President. South Carolina secedes from Union.

1861 Civil War causes: slavery, tariffs, representation

1861 6 other states secede, form Confederate States of America . Richmond the capital (after a short period where Montgomery Alabama was capital)
1862 Lincoln orders naval blockade of South. First ironclad ship battle. Robert Lee (confederates) and Ulysses Grant (union) rising generals. Congress passes law that blacks are allowed to serve in union army.
1862 Confederate National Draft (21% of army comes by draft),
1862 Union-2% by draft. People can buy a replacement or pay fee.
1863 Emancipation Proclamation, Battle of Gettsyburg, 51,000 lives.
1864 Union Sea blockade halts 1/3 of ships to south. Sherman takes control of Atlanta and other Georgia cities
1865 Lee surrenders at Appomattox Court House , Virginia .
1876 US Coast Guard established
1898 Spanish-American War rooted in Spain ’s treatment of Cuba . McKinley called ‘weak, would-be politician’ by Spanish ambassador. USS Maine explodes in Havana harbor, killing 260.. Warzone extends to Pacific. Treaty of Paris , Spain cedes Puerto Rico, Guam , Philippines .
1914 WWI Archduke Ferdinand ( Austria-Hungary ) assassinated. Russia , Britain , France , Serbia against Germany , Austria-Hungary. Trench warfare key component of war.
1915 German submarine sinks Lusitania , 128 Americans killed
1917 Zimmerman Telegram; German proposed alliance with Mexico where Promise to return SW land to Mexico . Leads to Congressional declaration of war on Germany , A-H. President Wilson states “world must be made safe for democracy”.
1917 first national draft instituted, increases army from 200,000 to 5 million. 2 million fight in Europe. (72% of army by way of draft)
1918 US involvement helps France push through Germany forces. Germany surrenders, Treaty of Versailles, 11am on 11/11.
1935 US passes Neutrality Acts, forbidding US Companies to sell materials or fuel to warring nations.
1941 (march) Lend-Lease program created. Will aid any country whose cause deemed vital to US interest. This program designed to avoid war involvement in Europe
1941 (August) Roosevelt and Churchill meet to create Atlantic Charter, guiding post war plans. !
1941 Dec 7: Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor . Dec. 8. US declares war on Japan . Dec. 11 Germany , Italy declare war on US.
1941 draft enlists all men from 18 to 38 (45) for duration of war. Labor and volunteerism dramatically increase. Example: US has 5 aircraft carriers when war declared. By 1945: 139.
1944 Operation Overlord, D DAY, June 6: largest air/sea invasion in history: 176,000 US troops, 20,000 vehicles.
1944-5 Battle of Bulge ( Germany ), largest land battle of war.
1945 United Nations plan organized by Roosevelt, Churchill and Stalin at meeting in Yalta , Ukraine .
1945 Germany surrenders.
1945 (August) atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima , Nagasaki . 200,000 people die. Japan surrenders.
1945 Korea divided at 38th Parallel.
1950 North Korean forces invade South Korea. War involves China , UN forces. US forces led by MacArthur, who eventually is replaced by Truman for philosophical differences. Little land exchanged by 1953 settlement.
1954 US Air Force established.
1954 Vietnam divided into North and South after French attempt at colonization. Elections in 1956 designed to unite nation, but South pulls out worried about communist victory.
1961 Bay of Pigs Cuba : attempted overthrow of Fidel Castro.

1964 Johnson asks congress to “join in affirming that the US will continue its basic policy of assisting the free nations of the area to defend their freedom” Gulf of Tonkin resolution gives president Johnson the power to wage war without formal declaration of war by congress. This is the only example in US history.

1967 buildup of US troops (385,000)
1969 first attempt at peace talks. Lottery system for draft established
1971 Pentagon Papers, congressional support for war drops discovering executive strategy and involvement for the war.
1975 Ford halts draft registration
1990 Iraq invasion of Kuwait . UN imposes sanctions.
1991 4 days of bombing clears Kuwait of Iraq presence.
2001 Office of Homeland Security created
2002 Dept. of Homeland Security established. Sweeping gov’t reorganization.
2003 citing non-compliance with UN resolution, military operations begin to depose Hussein, disarm country and create democratic government.
Hawaii, Cuba, Samoa, China, Panama, Cuba, Nicaragua, Cuba, Mexico, Haiti, Mexico, Russia, Guatemala, Lebanon, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Grenada, Panama, Somalia, Bosnia, Afghanistan

Survey of Immigration

Bullet Points in Bold are possible exam questions.

Identify different rational provided by those who oppose immigration. Has the rational changed throughout the history of this country?

1649 Maryland passes Act for Religious Tolerance
1654 Jewish Immigrants arrive from Brazil in New Amsterdam, not allowed a synagogue
1682 Welsh, Irish and Quakers settle PA, many because of political and religious reasons. Germans establish Germantown, PA, 6 years later declare slavery contrary to Christian faith.
1700 Welsh and English settlers make up 80% of population, Africans 11%, Dutch 4%
1714 Mass exodus of Scots and Irish (revolutions, rent control)
1716 French settle New Orleans. Spanish establish missions in Texas.
1730 First Jewish congregation in NYC
1768 Florida receives large immigration from Italy and Greece
1770 13 Colonies population is 1,688,254 whites and 459,822 blacks
1788 Constitution ratified. Clauses include slave importation cannot cease for 20 years.
1790 1st US Census: Less than ½ population English. 20% African, 15% Irish, 7% German, (757,208 Africans, 697, 681 are slaves)
1790-1820 fewer than 300,000 immigrants

1798 Alien and Sedition Act: requirements for citizenship, authorizes President to deport aliens dangerous to public safety, during wartime, authorizes gov’t to arrest and jail aliens.

1803 43,000 citizens gained, mostly French. 6,000 self describe as Americans
1807 congress prohibits importation of slaves, earliest date set by constitution.
1810 3rd census: 7.2 million, 1,377,808 black, 1,191,362 slaves
1819 1st immigration law, ship captains must prepare passenger lists, effort to improve travel conditions. 3,000 Irish workers arrive, build Erie Canal.
1820’s 150,000 immigrants arrive during decade (Ireland, Germany, England) Many escaping starvation
1825 Scandinavians settle in Western NY (eventually Midwest/plains states)
1830’s 600,000 immigrate to US
1837 Martin Van Buren, 8th president, 1st to fulfill requirement of birth as US citizen
1845 Potato Famine in Ireland (1.5 million people arrive in next decade)
1851 Highest Irish population immigration during Famine (over 200,000), most settle in eastern cities
1854 13,000 Chinese (previous high was 42)
1860 Abraham Lincoln wins presidency without single southern electoral vote. South Carolina, 5 other states form Confederate States of America. Civil War begins
1879 President Hayes vetoes bill limiting Chinese Immigration. California’s constitution prohibits employing Chinese workers.
1880 US/Chinese Gov’t agree US will regulate but not exclude Chinese laborers.
1880 250,000 Jewish people in US (by 1920, 2.5 million)
1882 President Arthur signs Chinese Exclusion Act (banning Chinese for 10 years, later extended)
1882 789,000 Immigrants enter US
1885 Importation of contract laborers prohibited 1890 Increase in Japanese immigration (25,000 by 1900)
1890 NYC has more Italians than Naples, more Germans than Hamburg and 2xs as many Irish as Dublin.
1892 Ellis Island opens as Immigration Hub
1898 Hawaii annexed, 154,000 people. 29,000 whites, 125,000 classified as ‘other’.
1900 US Census, 75 million people (3.6 million immigrants within last decade, 9 million immigrants come in next decade)
1909 creation of NAACP
1910 Tucson, El Paso, San Antonio, San Diego experience huge population growth through Mexican immigration, resulting from Mexican revolution
1913 Californian Alien Land Law prevents Japanese from owning land
1914 Immigration’s all time one year high. 1,218,480 people
1920 most industrial cities, immigrants compose at least ½ population, 3.5 million Jews in US (25% of NYC population), California law prohibits leasing of farmland by Japanese
1921 Emergency Quota Act. 3% of 1910 immigration statistics from each nation are allowed to immigrate (except Mexico and Latin America). Total immigration established at 375,000 per year
1933 16,000 Mexicans deported for illegal immigration. Call for deportation increases because of job competition during great depression.
1934 Hank Greenburg refuses to play baseball on Yom Kippur
1939 US refuses entry of 937 Jewish refugees by way of Cuba, sent back to Germany

1940 Alien Registration Act (Smith Act) requires all aliens to be registered and fingerprinted. Illegal for aliens to advocate for forceful overthrow of government

1942 Internment of 110,000 Japanese (2/3 are US citizens). Move from West Coast to remote regions, property value lost: $400 million
1947 Jackie Robinson breaks baseball’s color barrier
1959 Castro becomes Cuba’s president, 20,000 leave for US
1960 JFK first Catholic to hold office
1962 Cesar Chavez creates National Farm Workers Association. James Meredith attempts to register as first black student at U. Mississippi, resulting rioting
1963 Martin Luther King “I Have a Dream Speech”
1964 Civil Rights Act: attempts to ban discrimination in public places, education and employment
1965 Adaptation of immigration quota system. Limit of 120K visas for Western Hemisphere countries, 170K for all other nations. 20K limit per nation
1967 “long, hot summer” 100 American cities have riots (Newark)
1970 century low, 4.8% of citizens are foreign born. ! Indochina Migration and Refugee Assistance Act. Attempts to help Cambodian, Vietnamese, Laotians settle. 130,000 Vietnamese are accepted
1976 Supreme Court declares constitutional to order white suburbs to provide low-cost public housing to minorities
1977 Korean immigration reaches 30,000 per year
1978 Estimated 8.2 illegal aliens
1981: Top 6 Immigration countries; Mexico, Philippines, Vietnam, China, Dominican Republic, India
1988 Japanese Americans interned during WWII are given $20,000 each.
1990 80,000 immigrants from El Salvador enter. Jamaica has 17,000 per year throughout decade.
1991 Highest number of immigrants from India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Soviet Union (after breakup)
1996 163,000 Mexican immigrants, 32,000 from Bosnia, 8,000 from Somalia and 2500 from Iraq
1999 Elian Gonzalez Custody case

Survey of Westward Expansion

Bullet Points in Bold are eligible for the Final Exam.

1787 Northwest Land Ordinance establishes process by which territories apply for statehood, governing of lands surrounding Ohio and Mississippi rivers. Slavery banned in Old NW Territory
1788 First lands surveyed by Land Ordinance act are sold

1803 Louisiana Purchase: doubles size of country, purchased by Jefferson from France for $15 million dollars.

1804 Lewis and Clark expedition throughout new purchase, searching for waterway connections throughout new land.
1815 increase in westward expansion after War of 1812. · Missouri applies for statehood as a slave state
1820 Missouri compromise: Missouri admitted as slave state, Maine admitted as free state

1823 Monroe Doctrine: European Exploration efforts warned against by US, actions will be taken. US Will respect existing colonies and avoid European Internal affairs

1836 Texas declares independence from Mexico. The Alamo.
1842 Elijah White leads first wagon train to Oregon Country (120 settlers. One year later, 1000 make journey)
1845 Manifest Destiny term coined.
1848 End of Mexican American War results in Mexico ceding California and New Mexico. Same year, 70,000 Mormons travel to Utah from Illinois
1848 Daniel Webster: “I cannot conceive of anything more ridiculous, absurd, and more affrontive to all sober judgment than the cry that we are profiting by the acquisition of New Mexico and California. I hold that they are not worth a dollar.”
1848 Gold is discovered at Sutter’s Mill. San Francisco grows from 1,000 to 35,000 in one year. California from 93,000 to 380,000 in 10 years. 50,000 “Forty Niners” travel west.
1850 Compromise of 1850, further definitions of slavery status in new territories and states

1857 Dred Scott decision: Congress has no authority to restrict slavery in territories.

1859 Telegraph replaces pony express
1867 Alaska purchased for $7.2 million from Russia.

Survey of Exploration and Colonization

Bullet points in BOLD are potential exam questions.

1000 Leif Eriksson arrives at Nova Scotia
1499 Amerigo Vespucci sails along coasts of South America
1524 Giovanni Da Verrazzano sails from North Carolina to New York Bay
1585 Walter Raleigh lands on Roanoke Island. Drake rescues survivors, returning them to England
1587 2nd Roanoke settlement, birth of Virginia Dare, first child of english parents born in America
1606 King James grants charter to Virginia company, to establish colonies in America
1607 Virginia company sends 100 to settle Jamestown
1619 20 slaves head to Jamestown

1620 120 pilgrims from Mayflower land establish Plymouth colony, sign Mayflower Compact while traveling, establishing self-government

1626 Dutch establish New Netherland, Albany to Gloucester NJ, including New Amsterdam (NYC)
1630 John Winthrop, Mass Bay Co, find Boston, 20,000 settlers in 15 years
1634 Maryland, St. Mary’s, only English colony with significant catholic population
1641 Massachusetts no bond slavery will exist in that colony
1650: Dutch and English agree on boundaries
1664 New Amsterdam named New York, British find New Jersey colony
1666 Connecticut Puritans find Newark, NJ
1672 Mail service begins from Boston to NY
1681 William Penn, Quaker, receives charter from King Charles for Pennsylvania
1699 Spanish open florida for runaway slaves
1704 New-Letter, Boston, first newspaper
1708 Virginia (VA) has 12,000 slaves, 18,000 free
1715 VA, 23,000 slaves, 72,500 free
1749 Ohio Co. royal charter and land grant
1752 first general hospital in Philadelphia
1753 George Washington dispatched from Virginia to effect French Withdrawal from Ohio Valley
1756 French Indian War
1756 VA, 120,000 slaves, 173,000 free
1758 NJ Quakers oppose importation and sale of slaves
1760 French lose Montreal, Detroit, presence in North America

1764 Parliament approves Sugar Act to pay for debt of French-Indian War

1765 Quartering Act and Stamp Act, protesters attend Stamp Act Congress declare taxation without representation

1766 Declaratory Act, right to make laws governing colonies, Mason-Dixon line established by map surveyors
1770 13 colonies 1,688,254 free, 459,822 slaves
1773, Boston Tea Party, Committee for Intercolonial Corresponence (VA Reps: Thomas Jefferson, and Patrick Henry)

1774 First Continental Congress, denounce coercive acts, advise people to bear arms, propose cut off with England

1775 Paul Revere, battle of Lexington and Concord,
1775, Philadelphia, PA Society for Abolition of Slavery Formed

1776 Declaration of Independence: written by Thomas Jefferson, adopted by Congress, signed by delegates on August 2

NJ signers: Abraham Clark, John Hart, Francis Hopkinson, Richard Stockton, John Witherspoon

Survey of Native American History

Bullet points for the exam are in Bold and 20 point font.

50,000-15000 BCE migration from Siberia
4000 first settled communities along Pacific
1500BCE-CE growth of crops, pottery, culture, government, hunting tools, Tribes migrate,
settle, hunt and farm land

1450 Iroquois League (aka Iroquois Confederacy) is founded in northeast. The Founding Fathers use this as one source in creating early American Government.

1492 Columbus arrives
1516 first major epidemic (smallpox)
1539 De Sota, other explorers, conquers communities
1607 Jamestown founded by British; Pocahontas and John Smith
1620 Pilgrims land in Plymouth Massachusetts, helped by Massasoit and Squanto
1626 Peter Minuit buys Manhattan $24
1636 Pequots wiped out by Puritans in Connecticut
1676 King Phillip wages war, last white/Indian war in Northeast (except Maine)
1689-1748 3 wars of France, Spain, Britain, (William, Anne, George)
1723 First school for Indians built by Williamsburg
1754 French/Indian war, Canada and great lake regions are lost to British
1776 many Indians fight for British during Revolutionary War, abandoned after defeat.
!1787 Northwest Ordinance: “utmost good faith to Indians, land and property shall never be taken from them without their consent”
1815 Indian Country established west of Missouri by James Monroe
1820 Government involvement in moving Indians to Indian country
1824 Bureau of Indian Affairs established by War Department.
1831 Cherokee Nation subject to federal but not state law

1838 Trail of Tears, Cherokees forcibly removed from Georgia to Oklahoma, along way ¼ die.

1854 Indian Country cut to ½ size, for transcontinental railroad and influx of white settlers.
1867 Treaty of Medicine Lodge, 100,000 Apache, Navajos, Sioux, others to accept Indian country now reservation status, relinquish territory outside reservation
1868 14th amendment citizenship, ‘indians not taxed’ are not to be included in population counts for representation purposes.
1876 Sioux War, Crazy Horse and Sitting Bull (leaders), victory at Little Bighorn, (Custer’s last stand): last major Native American victory, driven to Dakota territories
1881 end of white/Indian conflict in Southwest, with surrender of Apache leader Geronimo
1887 Dawes Severalty Act: land ownership system that awards individual, not tribe, blow to tribal sovereignty
1890 last great Indian defeat: Wounded Knee, South Dakota
1906 Blue Lake Region of New Mexico taken as National Park by federal government, region is Pueblos sacred ground
1907 Indian country officially eliminated when Oklahoma becomes state

1924 Citizenship Act: all Indians citizens, and maintain status as tribe members, voting comes in 60’s.

1942 Navajo Indians Code talkers, pacific battles
1955 Public Health service takes over Indian health, creates Indian health services, (today, Indians still have highest mortality rate)
1964 Civil Rights Act restores tribal law to reservations,, Lyndon B. Johnson pledges to end paternalism
1995 Janet Reno establishes office of tribal justice to help Dept of Justice
Contributions of Native to American Culture
FOOD: corn, potato, tomato, beans, turkey, maple sugar, squash
INDUSTRY: tobacco and cotton
MEDICINE: 200 drugs originally used by Indians, quinine until 40’s only treatment for malaria, coca, novacaine
HOUSING: tepee/tent, igloo, architecture in SW, long house and pueblos influenced lab design at University of New Mexico
SPIRITUALITY: More diverse than originally believed: For example, the Mississippi Valley has highly structured system, vatican, priests, tribe deity while the Great Plains: decentralized, personal religion. Medicine Men were like prophets -Individual religious experience, prayers and vision quests -Ceremonial with tribal participation, tied to tribe, code of conduct -Care for the earth
LIFESTYLE: hammock, toboggans, lacrosse
CLOTHING: parkas, ponchos, moccasins
GOVERNMENT: federalism: Iroquois league five nations balancing power