Bullet points in Bold are eligible for exam questions.
foreign affairs the responsibility of congress and the president. President is responsible as commander in chief, negotiating treaties which are confirmed by senate, to appoint ambassadors and receive emissaries. Congress approves defense funding, support army and navy, regulate foreign trade and to declare war.
1781 By Treaty of Paris , ending revolutionary war, US establishes relationships with France , Great Britain , Spain , the Netherlands and Russia
1789 Thomas Jefferson is appointed first secretary of state.
1793 first Foreign affairs challenge. Great Britain and France are at war and Washington declares neutrality and seeks trade with both nations. (1st wave of neutrality) ?What were the benefits of the first president declaring neutrality?
1807 Trading becomes increasingly difficult, Jefferson signs Embargo At, which makes all importing/exporting with Europe forbidden. A year later this is overturned after it hurts US more than Great Britain .
1817 JQ Adams, secretary of state signs Rush-Bagot Treaty, which takes military presence out of Great Lakes region, and ultimately Canadian border.
1823 Monroe Doctrine created, affirming US will defend against colonization attempts in America , and will refrain from European affairs. Dominates thinking until WW I.
1824 Monrovia made capital of Liberia , where American Colonization society brought freed slaves starting in 1822
1853 Matthew Perry opens Japan and US Trade
1855 William Walker leads group to Nicaragua and declares himself dictator. President Pierce recognizes government. Loses attempts by 1857
Post Civil war: 2nd wave of Foreign Affair neutrality
1889 James Blaine calls for first hemisphere wide conference, the Pan-American conference.
1899 Open Door Policy proposed in Asia, which suggests all nations have equal trading rights in China , American attempt at non-colony presence in Asia .
1904 Roosevelt Corollary, which declares US right to intervene in Latin American internal affairs when those nations are experiencing political or fiscal instability “however relunctantly”
1905 Taft breaks Open Door Policy by building railroads in China , which begins tension with Japan (reaching climax in WW2)
1917 Jones Act grants political autonomy to Puerto Rico and grants US citizenship to residents
1919 Treaty of Versailles ends WWI. President Wilson presents 14 Points for post-war world. “The principle of justice to all peoples and nationalities, and their right to live on equal terms of liberty and safety with one another whether they be weak or strong.” The Points identify common historical problems that result from war:
annexing disputed lands
use of the high sea
open treaties among nations of world
the right of neutrality
freedom of high seas
free trade among nations
reduced arms and armies
self-determination for all nations
mediation of colony claims.
The 14th point is the League of Nations . The League is established by 1920 in Europe, but the senate opposes US membership.
1920 third wave of foreign affair neutrality
1941 Atlantic Charter negotiated by Roosevelt, Churchill and Stalin.
Renounces territorial aggrandizement
affirms the rights of people to choose their own form of government
equal access to trade for all nations
collaborative efforts in economic advancement
to live in freedom
1944 International Monetary Fund and International bank for Reconstruction and Development are created as plans for post-2nd world war are created.
1945 Germany is divided into 4 quadrants following war. Each zone led by France, US, Great Britain and Russia .
1945 formations of United Nations. 5 member security council: France , China , G. Britain, USSR , US. General Assembly. Today, US funds over 25% of budget and supplies, as well as troops. 189 Nations are currently members.
1946 Bipartisan support against communism, and development of Iron Curtain in western Europe. Birth of Cold War: ideological, economic differences and arms race
1947 Truman Doctrine offers military and economic aid to nations that resist communist aggression. This resistance to aggression is called “containment”
and 12.5 billion dollars given by 1950. First significant foreign aid by US. Truman also creates Central Intelligence Agency.
1948 Unification of Germany opposed by USSR . US and Britain send in air supply of food and fuel until blockade by USSR around Berlin abandoned.
1949 NATO formed, North Atlantic Treaty Organization. China/US relations cool with Communist form of government installed.
1954 SEATO formed, Southeast Asian Treaty Organization, but does not include India and Indonesia , thus not as influential as NATO.
1961 USSR builds Berlin Wall because of large exodus from East German zone.
1968 115 nations sign Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty
1969 Nixon Doctrine attempting to reduce role as world’s policemen “We will help where it makes a difference in our national interest. America cannot and will not conceive all the plans, design all the programs execute all the decisions and undertake all the defenses of the nations of the world”. Support includes anti-democratic Shah of Iran, Marcos in Philippines and white government of South Africa .
1972 Nixon travels to China creating breakthrough in US/China relations. Sells $1 billion in wheat to USSR .
1979 Carter Doctrine. United States interested and will protect interests in the Middle East
1979 Shah is ousted in Iran . Result of revolution, 53 Americans are taken hostage for 444 days in Iran .
1985 Mikhail Gorbachev comes to power in USSR , tensions relax over time with US.
1989 Communist Block in eastern Europe breaks down. Elections in Poland , Hungary , Bulgaria and Czechoslovakia . Berlin Wall comes down.
1990’s: Post Cold War intervention by Bush and Clinton includes Nicaragua , Kuwait , Bosnia , Haiti , Somalia and Kosovo.
1993 North Atlantic Free Trade Agreement with Canada and Mexico .
2000 Full Trading partner status with China .
2001: Bush Doctrine: nations of world are divided into those who support US anti-terrorist efforts and those who do not.
Less than 1% of federal budget goes to foreign aid. (not including war costs)